discrete molecular structure of carbon allotropes

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Allotropes of Carbon. The two most common, naturally occurring allotropes of carbon: (1) graphite ; diamond ; Both graphite and diamond are made up of carbon atoms, but the arrangement of atoms is different in each allotrope which results in different physical properties. Graphite is another allotrope of carbon; unlike diamond, it is an electrical conductor and a semi-metal. The carbon atoms are arranged in a lattice, which is a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure. Diamonds typically crystallize in the cubic crystal system and consist of tetrahedrally bonded carbon atoms. Diamond is probably the most well known carbon allotrope. Carbon allotropes made by sp2 carbon atoms, such as CB, CNT, and graphite, have a common feature: they are made by graphene sheets, as it is shown in Fig. Carbon in solid phase can exist in three crystalline allotropic forms: diamond, graphite and buckminsterfullerene. Carbon can be found in several different forms that differ in the orientation of the carbon-carbon bonds. Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in crystalline structure. There are three types of natural graphite: Graphite has a layered, planar structure. Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon allotrope. It has superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. Di­a­mond is a well known al­lotrope of car­bon. Wikipedia As the sp 2 hybridisation results in planar structures, there are giant 2 dimensional layers of carbon atoms and each layer is only weakly linked to the next layer by Van der Waal's forces. Allotropes of Carbon. This is a kinetic phenomenon, and diamond is thus described as metastable. Diamond and graphite form covalent network structures whereas buckminster fullerene has a molecular solid structure with discrete C 60 molecules. In­dus­trial di­a­mon… Diamond does not convert to graphite under standard conditions, even though it is spontaneous (ΔGo = -2.90 kJmol-1). Diamond is a well-known allotrope of carbon that exhibits hardness and high dispersion of light. The carbon-carbon bond length in graphene is ~0.142 nm, and these sheets stack to form graphite with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nm. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions and is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. The structure of C60 is that of a truncated icosahedron, which resembles a football of the type made of hexagons and pentagons, with a carbon atom at the corners of each hexagon … Each carbon atom in a diamond is covalently bonded to four other carbons in a tetrahedron. CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eight_Allotropes_of_Carbon.png Crystalline flake graphite: isolated, flat, plate-like particles with hexagonal edges, Amorphous graphite: fine particles, the result of thermal metamorphism of coal; sometimes called meta-anthracite, Lump or vein graphite: occurs in fissure veins or fractures, appears as growths of fibrous or acicular crystalline aggregates. Building Buckyballs: Model Construction Activity (30-40 min.) In diamond the structure consists of an infinite array of tetrahedral carbon atoms bonded to each other in an infinite network by covalent carbon-carbon bonds. CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphite Diamond; Graphite [ Graphene] Amorphous carbon; Buckminsterfullerene [ Carbon nanotube, Carbon nanobuds] Glassy carbon; Carbon nanofoam; Lonsdaleite (hexagonal diamond) Linear acetylene carbon (LAC) Hyperenes – have penta coordinate ♦Diamond. As these crystalline allotropes differ in their structures, they CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allotropy Wikipedia top. right-click on the molecule for more options . Note: Students often ask "but how does the structure end?" It is an allotrope of carbon whose structure is a single planar sheet of sp2 bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. Wikipedia The different structures give rise to vastly different physical properties. Wikipedia In graphite, the atoms bond to form sheets of a hexagonal lattice. Nanobuds therefore exhibit properties of both nanotubes and fullerenes. The molecular graph of carbon graphite CG(m, n) for t … click on the molecule and drag to rotate it. It is composed of carbon atoms positioned in a hexagonal design, which can be said to resemble a chicken wire. Di­a­mond is the hard­est known nat­ural min­eral. Chemical Reactivity of Carbon Carbon compounds form the basis of all known life on Earth, and the carbon-nitrogen cycle provides some energy produced by the sun and other stars. However, graphite and diamond have the same chemical composition and properties. Graphite is composed of sheets of carbon… View all the molecular structures of carbon in dazzling 3D: graphite, diamond and the amazing Bucky ball. Graphite is a soft, black, slippery substance; by contrast, diamond is one of the hardest substances known. Basically a 'discrete molecule' is a covalent molecule in which the intermolecular forces are really weak, hence the low melting and boiling points of these molecules. As these crystalline allotropes differ in their structures, they The exposure of the C=C multiple bonds allows them to have a rich array of organic chemistry; other uses include trapping ions or molecules within the carbon framework. display options . 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